What is fertilization

The purpose of fertilization is to maintain and increase the natural fertility of the garden soil. This statement is only apparently simple and understandable, because since the publication of Liebig's basic works, there have been large differences in the interpretation of issues related to soil fertilization and plant nutrition. From the middle of the last century, agricultural chemicals treated fertilization as supplying the soil with specific substances. Thanks to this, it was possible to significantly increase the yield, also in horticulture, but it had repercussions, which we are only noticing today: the occurrence of diseases and pests, environmental pollution and much more.

Already Laatsch (1958) he saw it a bit differently. He argued, that “today another problem comes to the fore, namely, what different soils need to stay healthy?” Means, that it is not enough to provide the plants with the nutrients they need, but it is imperative to remember, that the soil and the plants growing in it constitute one whole. So what measures must be taken, so as not to disturb the interaction of all environmental factors, but to help and stimulate them?

Steiner is of a similar opinion: "You have to understand, that fertilization is the revitalization of the soil, so that the plant does not grow in a dead environment, where she would hardly get it, what is necessary for its yielding”.

Nature is the best teacher. By observing the life processes taking place in it, it can be noticed, how is the transformation and growth of organic matter. For example, in a mixed forest, grass grows under the shade of tall trees, herbs and shrubs. Many of these plants die in the fall and, with the participation of microorganisms and other soil organisms, turn into a pleasantly fragrant, humus forest soil. It is also made up of the droppings of animals living in the forest, their feathers, hair, horns and bones as well as dead insects and other soil organisms. The roots of the trees penetrate the soil, and even deeper - they absorb minerals into the substrate and with the help of microorganisms, which are transported to the above-ground parts of the plant. In the leaves illuminated by the sun, carbohydrates - solid substances - are produced from the carbon dioxide taken by plants from the air.

Thanks to the rainfall, in close connection with the soil flora and fauna, nitrogen is supplied and fixed. Dead organic debris is decomposed and together with the minerals, formed in the process of weathering, they enter into circulation in the cariogenic process; the soil is "rebuilt".

A farmer or gardener is forced to interfere with the processes taking place in nature. It transforms natural sites into arable fields, which requires targeted and intensive action. Proper soil cultivation is essential to obtain high yields, fertilization and plant care. All this contributes to the enrichment of the soil with humus. Harvest residues and roots that are left in the soil increase the fertility of the soil, and green manure plants enrich the soil with nitrogen and revitalize it.

The compost heap is an important place in the garden, where the leaves are collected, harvest residues, kitchen waste, cut grass, ditch sludge and many other materials, which, as a result of complex transformations, create humus.

On the farm, in which there are animals, the farmer has manure at his disposal, the gardener must buy it, to enrich the compost heap. Only then will it obtain a soil rich in humus and basic nutrients, conditioning good growth of cultivated plants.

We should learn to compost our own compost correctly. Therefore, detailed rules for setting up and caring for compost piles are presented below.