How to make a fireplace?
Nowadays, the main task of the fireplace is not, as it was in the past, room heating, that is, a utility function, but above all, meeting aesthetic and psychological needs. Flickering of flames, the crackle of burning wood and the smell of resin create a mood, which we will not cause any other, even technically and economically the most perfect way of heating.
also, compared to modern heating devices, even though they are more economical, more comfortable and cleaner than an open heat source, a fireplace in the specific conditions of summer cottages has many practical advantages, which, together with the aforementioned aesthetic and psychological factors, are the reason, that we give it priority over a coal stove, coke or gas.
We include this among the listed advantages, that we often have free firewood from the forest, that cutting and chopping wood is a pleasant form of active rest, i to, that with some practice in lighting up, a fireplace gives heat faster than a stove.
That the fireplace would be a source of pleasure for us and not be a problem, it is necessary to build it correctly.
The construction and basic dimensions of the fireplace are given in the drawing and in the attached table.
|Dimensions||Room volume, m3|
|cm||40-60 m3||60-90 m3||90-120 m3|
|K||Ø 20||Ø 20||Ø 24|
These data are the result of thousands of years of experience and it is not advisable to change them arbitrarily. For example, if we make a hearth with a depth greater than the specified one or if we do not use a characteristic slant in the upper rear part of the hearth, this does not reflect this amount of heat down the firebox, what are necessary to heat the room, and it will run down the chimney for the most part uselessly. The shape of the smoke chamber is also of great importance 5, namely, her lower protrusion 6 protects the furnace against blasts of cold air entering it 3 through the chimney, which put smoke back into rooms a, and the groove in the projection collects the condensed steam formed on heating, which would otherwise flow into the firebox.
The basic condition for the proper functioning of a fireplace is a proper chimney draft. The height of the chimney and the temperature of the flue gases are of fundamental importance for the draft. The higher the chimney and the temperature of the exhaust gases, this sequence is better. Therefore, we must prevent the chimney walls from getting too cold; means, that the chimney should not be placed next to an external wall or outside the building. It is also essential for thrust, keep the chimney straight (without bends) and that the surface of the conduit is as smooth as possible. Moreover, the location of the chimney should enable the chimney to be cleaned from the roof or the attic through a suitable door. It is desirable, that the fireplace has a door for cleaning also in the smoke chamber.
GENERAL RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF A FIREPLACE
In case a chimney suitable for attaching the fireplace already exists, building a fireplace will be a very simple task. With a chimney height of approx. 8 m the cross-section of its conductor in the light should be the minimum 20 x 20 cm. If the chimney is lower, then the conductor cross-section must be greater. The constructed fireplace is connected to the chimney with an elbow.
If we have to put up a chimney, it is necessary to build a chimney with a fireplace. The rule applies in both cases, that the fireplace should have a separate chimney.